Hawks in Washington State are a sight to behold, captivating birdwatchers and nature enthusiasts with their majestic presence. With their powerful talons and keen hunting skills, these birds of prey dominate the skies of the Evergreen State.
Whether you’re exploring the rugged mountain ranges, hiking through the lush forests, gazing out over the coastal cliffs, or simply relaxing in your backyard, the chance of encountering a hawk in Washington is an exciting and likely prospect.
What Are The Most Common Hawks In Washington State?
The most common hawks in Washington State include the Red-tailed Hawk, Osprey, Northern Harrier, Cooper’s Hawk, Sharp-shinned Hawk, Rough-legged Hawk, Swainson’s Hawk, Red-shouldered Hawk, American Goshawk, and Ferruginous Hawk.
This article will cover Washington State’s ten hawks, from the iconic Red-tailed Hawk to the Ferruginous Hawk and beyond.
With helpful tips and insights for identifying these birds and understanding their unique appearance, behaviors, and habitat, this post will be a valuable resource for both seasoned birdwatchers and enthusiastic beginners.
We have organized our list from most likely seen to the least likely to be seen for your convenience.
Washington State Hawks
According to the latest data from ebird, there are ten observed species of Hawks in Washington. This data has been collected from over 40,000 dedicated bird watchers throughout the state.
Here are some quick facts:
- The Red-tailed Hawk is the most commonly observed hawk in Washington State
- Ferruginous Hawks are the least widely observed species in the state.
- Ferruginous Hawks are the largest in Washington
- Sharp-shinned Hawks are the smallest in Washington
10 Types Of Hawks In Washington State
1. Red-tailed Hawk
The Red-tailed Hawk is a large bird of prey native to North America and is a year-round resident of Washington State. They are one of the most iconic and identifiable North American hawks.
- Length: 45-65cm (17.7-25.6inches)
- Weight: 690-1460g (24.3-51.5oz)
- Wingspan: 114-133cm (44.9-52.4inches)
- Red-tailed Hawk Scientific Name: Buteo jamaicensis
Red-tailed Hawks are large birds with a wingspan of up to four feet. They are brown above and pale below with a streaked belly. As their name suggests, their most distinctive feature is their red tail, which you can often see as they soar through the skies.
Red-tailed Hawks are common throughout North America, from as far north as Alaska to as far south as Panama. They prefer to live in open areas like fields, prairies, and deserts, but you will also see them in wooded areas.
They are highly adaptable and can also live and hunt in urban and suburban areas. Look for them perched on high trees and telephone poles at the edge of fields.
They are predatory birds that feed on a variety of prey. They hunt during the day, using their keen eyesight to spot their food from high in the sky. They eat small mammals like mice, rabbits, squirrels, birds, snakes, and other reptiles.
Red-tailed Hawks build their nests high above the ground, usually near open areas where they can hunt. These can be tall trees, billboards, towers, and buildings.
They use sticks and twigs to build a large platform, which they line with soft materials like grass and leaves. They typically lay 2-3 eggs, which hatch after about a month. Both parents take turns incubating the eggs and feeding the chicks.
- Red-tailed Hawks are known for their distinctive call, often heard in movies and TV shows.
- These birds can fly at speeds of up to 120 miles per hour!
- They are famous in falconry, a sport that involves training birds of prey to hunt.
- In some Native American cultures, the Red-tailed Hawk is considered a symbol of strength and courage.
Ospreys are giant hawks that can be seen on almost every continent and are residents of Washington State during the summer breeding season. They are also called fish or sea hawks and feed exclusively on fish.
- Length: 54-58cm (21-23 inches)
- Weight: 1400-2000g (49.4-70oz)
- Wingspan: 150-180cm (59-71 inches)
- Osprey Scientific Name: Pandion haliaetus
Ospreys are large birds with a wingspan of up to 6 feet. They have dark brown feathers on their back and wings, with a white chest and belly. Their heads are white with a distinctive dark eye stripe. They also have long legs with sharp, curved talons for catching fish.
You can find Ospreys near bodies of water, such as rivers, lakes, and coastlines. They are located on every continent except Antarctica, but you can more easily see them in North America and Europe.
Ospreys are predatory birds that feed almost exclusively on fish. They hunt during the day, using their keen eyesight to spot fish in the water from high in the sky.
You can see them hovering high above the water to spot their catch. Once they spot a fish, they dive into the water feet first to catch it.
They are also known for their ability to shake off excess water before flying away with their catch.
Ospreys build large nests of sticks and twigs, usually in tall trees or artificial structures such as poles or platforms. They may use the same nest year after year, adding to it each time.
They typically lay 2-4 eggs, which hatch after about a month. Both parents take turns incubating the eggs and feeding the chicks.
- Ospreys are the only raptors that exclusively eat fish.
- These birds have a reversible outer toe that helps them grip their slippery prey more effectively.
- Once they have caught a fish, they maneuver the fish’s head forward to reduce wind resistance.
- Ospreys are known for their spectacular fishing dives, reaching up to 80 miles per hour.
- These birds can migrate up to 160,000 miles in their lifetime, traveling between their breeding and wintering grounds.
3. Northern Harrier
Northern Harriers are medium-sized birds of prey that people can see throughout North and Central America and are year-round residents of Washington State.
They are also commonly known as Marsh Hawks for their specific hunting behavior.
- Length: 46-50cm (18.1-19.8 inches)
- Weight: 300-750g (10.5-26.5oz)
- Wingspan: 102-118cm (40-46.5 inches)
- Northern Harrier Scientific Name: Circus cyaneus
Northern Harriers are medium-sized birds with a wingspan of up to 4 feet. They have long, broad wings and a long, rounded tail. They have tiny, hooked beaks, and their face is “owl-like.”
Males have a gray back, gray wings with black wingtips, black horizontal bands on their tales, and white underparts.
Females are brown on their back and wings, with a white underside streaked with brown. Juveniles appear similar to adult females.
Males and females also have a distinctive white rump patch visible when flying.
You can spot Northern Harriers in various open habitats, such as marshes, grasslands, and agricultural fields.
Northern Harriers are predatory birds that feed on various marsh-living prey, including small mammals, birds, and reptiles. They may even feed on ducks and rabbits if given a chance.
They hunt by flying low over the ground, using their keen eyesight and hearing to locate prey.
They are also known for their ability to hover in place while scanning for prey.
Northern Harriers build their nests on the ground, typically in dense marsh vegetation such as reeds and tall grass. They may use sticks, grasses, and other plant materials to create a platform.
They typically lay 4-5 eggs, which hatch after about a month. The female takes primary responsibility for incubating the eggs and caring for the young.
- The Northern Harrier is among the few bird species exhibiting sexual dimorphism in which Males are smaller than females.
- They can also be polygynous, with a single male mating with two or more females in a breeding season.
- These birds are known for their distinctive hunting behavior, which involves flying low over the ground and using their hearing to locate prey.
- These birds have been known to mob potential predators, such as eagles or owls, to protect their nests and young.
4. Cooper’s Hawk
Cooper’s Hawks are medium-sized birds of prey that people can see throughout North America. They can be seen in southern Washington all year round and visit their breeding grounds during the summer months in northern Washington.
They are named after William Cooper, an American naturalist who helped describe the species in the 19th century.
- Length: 37-45cm (14.5-17.8 inches)
- Weight: 220-680g (7.8-24oz)
- Wingspan: 62-90cm (24.5-35.5 inches)
- Cooper’s Hawk Scientific Name: Accipiter cooperii
They are medium-sized birds with a wingspan of up to 3 feet. They are blue-gray above, with a rusty-colored chest and belly.
They also have distinctive dark caps on their head and dark horizontal bars on their tails.
Juveniles have brown wings and back with streaked underparts. They appear similar to Sharp-shinned hawks but are noticeably larger, and males are smaller than females.
They have broad rounded wings, long tails, sharp, curved talons, and a hooked beak for catching and eating their prey.
You can spot a Cooper’s Hawk in various wooded habitats, from suburban parks to mature forests. They can be found throughout North America, from southern Canada to Mexico.
Cooper’s Hawks are predatory birds that feed on various prey, including small mammals, birds, and reptiles. They hunt during the day, using their keen eyesight and agility to pursue their prey through the trees.
They are known for their fast, acrobatic flights through the forest.
They are expert ambushers and frequently hunt birds that visit bird feeders in gardens and backyards throughout Washington State.
We have witnessed a juvenile Cooper’s Hawk fly fast and low across our yard and then up and over our fence to attack some pigeons perched on the other side.
They build nests in tall trees, using sticks and twigs to create a platform. They may also use the nests of other birds, such as crows or squirrels.
They typically lay 3-5 eggs, which hatch after about a month. Both parents take turns incubating the eggs and feeding the chicks.
- The Cooper’s Hawk is one of the few bird species capable of eating other birds their own size.
- These birds are sometimes called “chicken hawks” due to their habit of preying on domestic chickens.
- They are skilled fliers, capable of maneuvering through dense forests at high speeds.
- They were once hunted for their feathers, which were used in fashion accessories such as hats.
5. Sharp-shinned Hawk
The Sharp-shinned Hawk is a small bird of prey that people can see throughout much of North America and in Washington State all year round.
They are known for their agility and speed in flight and are skilled hunters of small birds and mammals.
- Length: 24-34cm (9.4-13.5 inches)
- Weight: 87-218g (3.1-7.7oz)
- Wingspan: 87-218cm (17-22 inches)
- Sharp-shinned Hawk Scientific Name: Accipiter striatus
Sharp-shinned Hawks are small birds with a wingspan of up to 2 feet. They have long, squared-off narrow tails and short rounded wings.
Females are larger than males and look similar to Cooper’s Hawks but considerably smaller, just a bit larger than a Blue Jay.
They are bluish-gray above, with a dark barred tail and a rusty-colored chest and belly.
You can spot a Sharp-shinned Hawk in various wooded habitats, from mature forests to suburban parks and backyards. They live in areas throughout North America, from Alaska to Central America.
Sharp-shinned Hawks are predatory birds that feed primarily on small songbirds but will also eat small rodents, lizards, and large insects.
They are skilled hunters, using their agility and speed in flight to pursue and catch their prey. You can see them hunting birds in backyards that attract songbirds to bird feeders.
They build concealed nests in trees, using sticks and twigs to create a platform. They typically lay 4-5 eggs, which hatch after about a month. Females mostly incubate the eggs and feed the chicks.
- Sharp-shinned Hawks are known for their speed and flight agility, allowing them to catch small birds and mammals easily.
- These birds are sometimes referred to as “sharpies” by bird enthusiasts.
- They are one of the few bird species that exhibit sexual size dimorphism, with females being larger than males.
- These birds are sometimes preyed upon by larger birds of prey, such as Cooper’s Hawks or American Goshawks.
6. Rough-legged Hawk
The Rough-legged Hawk is a large bird of prey that can be found in the northern parts of North America, Europe, and Asia. They can be seen in Washington during the colder non-breeding months.
They are known for their distinctive feathered legs, which help them stay warm in their cold northern habitats.
- Length: 47-52cm (18.5-20.5 inches)
- Weight: 715-1400g (25.1-49.5oz)
- Wingspan: 132-138cm (52-54 inches)
- Rough-legged Hawk Scientific Name: Buteo lagopus
Rough-legged Hawks are large hawks with a wingspan of up to 5 feet. They have relatively long, broad wings and long tails.
Their legs are covered in feathers, which helps them stay warm in their cold northern habitats.
They are dark brown above, with a lighter chest and belly. They also have a white tail with a black band near the end. Females have paler heads and dark bellies.
Light morphs have white or pale underwings with dark areas at the end of their shoulders. Dark morphs are primarily dark brown, with silvery white flight feathers and dark wingtips.
You can spot Rough-legged Hawks in various open habitats, including deserts, tundra, prairies, fields, and grasslands. They breed in northern Canada and spend their winters in the lower 48 states of the US.
Rough-legged Hawks are predatory birds that feed primarily on rodents such as voles and mice but will also eat other smaller mammals, birds, and insects.
They hunt by hovering over fields, using their keen eyesight to scan for prey from high in the sky.
They primarily build nests on cliffs or sometimes even on the ground, using sticks and twigs to create a platform.
They typically lay 3-5 eggs, which hatch after about a month. Females incubate the eggs and feed the chicks.
- Rough-legged Hawks are one of the few bird species that change the color of their feathers with the seasons. During the summer, their feathers are brown, but in the winter, they become primarily white.
- These birds are sometimes called “Arctic hawks” due to their northern habitat.
- They are known for their distinctive hovering flight, which allows them to stay in one place while scanning for movement below.
7. Swainson’s Hawk
The Swainson’s Hawk is a large hawk that lives primarily in North and South America and are residents of Washington State during the summer breeding season.
They are known for their long migrations and impressive hunting abilities.
- Length: 48-53cm (19-21 inches)
- Weight: 680-1361g (24-48oz)
- Wingspan: 120-132cm (47.2-52 inches)
- Swainson’s Hawk Scientific Name: Buteo swainsoni
Swainson’s Hawks are large birds with a wingspan of up to 4 feet. They are typical Buteo hawks with broad wings and short tails—however, their wings and body are somewhat slimmer than other buteo species.
Their coloration varies slightly, but adults are primarily brownish-gray above and white below, with a rusty-brown chest and distinctively white underwings contrasted against black flight feathers. Males have gray heads, and females have brown heads.
You can spot a Swainson’s Hawk in various open habitats, including grasslands, deserts, and agricultural fields throughout North, Central, and South America.
They spend their summers breeding in North America and migrate down through central and South America to spend their winters in Argentina, stopping along the way in open fields to feed.
Swainson’s Hawks are predatory birds that feed primarily on large insects such as grasshoppers and dragonflies.
They will also feed on small mammals, birds, and reptiles such as squirrels, mice, snakes, and lizards during the breeding season when they need to feed their young.
Swainson’s Hawks build well-hidden nests in trees or shrubs, typically 15-30 feet off the ground, using sticks, twigs, and weeds to create a platform.
They typically lay 2-4 eggs, which hatch after about a month. Females mostly incubate the eggs, and both parents feed the chicks.
- Swainson’s Hawks are known for their long migrations, which can take them from their breeding grounds in North America to Argentina in South America.
- These birds are sometimes called “grasshopper hawks” due to their diet of grasshoppers and other insects.
- Swainson’s Hawks are social birds, often gathering in large groups during migration.
- These birds are sometimes preyed upon by larger birds of prey, such as Golden Eagles or Great Horned Owls.
8. Red-shouldered Hawk
The Red-shouldered Hawk is a medium-sized bird of prey that is native to North America. Their year-round western range is primarily the west coast of California and Oregon but can extend into southern Washington.
They are named for the distinctive reddish-brown feathers on their shoulders.
- Length: 43-61cm (16.9-24 inches)
- Weight: 486-774g (17.1-27oz)
- Wingspan: 94-110cm (37-44 inches)
- Red-shouldered Hawk Scientific Name: Buteo lineatus
Red-shouldered Hawks have medium-length tails and broad rounded wings.They have a dark and white checkered back and wings, with a reddish-brown chest and belly.
As their name suggests, they also have reddish-brown feathers on their shoulders, which are easily noticeable in flight.
You can spot Red-shouldered Hawks in wooded areas, often near water sources such as rivers or swamps. They are less common in open areas than Red-tailed Hawks.
They are found throughout the eastern and far western parts of the United States and into Mexico.
Red-shouldered Hawks are predatory birds that feed on a variety of prey. They hunt during the day, using their sharp eyesight to spot prey from a perch high in the trees.
They eat snakes, lizards, frogs, and small mammals, such as mice, voles, and squirrels.
They build their nests in notches in tall trees, usually near water sources. They use sticks and twigs to create a platform, which they line with soft materials like moss and lichen.
They typically lay 2-4 eggs, which hatch after about a month. Both parents take turns incubating the eggs and feeding the chicks.
- Red-shouldered Hawks have a distinctive call that sounds like “kee-yer” or “kee-aah.”
- These birds have a unique hunting style where they swoop down from a perch to catch prey.
- These birds are monogamous and may mate for life.
9. American Goshawk
The American Goshawk is a large hawk that lives in forests and woodlands throughout much of North America, Europe, and Asia.
Formerly known as the Northern Goshawk, in 2023, the American Ornithological Society split the Northern Goshawk into the American Goshawk and the Eurasian Goshawk.
They are residents of western Washington all year round and in eastern Washington around Spokane during the colder non-breeding months.
They are known for their fierce hunting skills and impressive size compared to other accipiter hawks species.
- Length: 53-64cm (21-25 inches)
- Weight: 631-1364g (22-48oz)
- Wingspan: 103-118cm (40-46 inches)
- American Goshawk Scientific Name: Accipiter gentilis
American Goshawks are large birds with a wingspan of up to 4 feet. They have long tails and broad rounded wings.
Adults are slate gray above and a grayish-silver with faint dark barring below. Their head is darker, with a white stripe above their reddish-orange eyes.
Juveniles are brown above and white with heavy streaking below.
You can spot American Goshawks in various forested habitats, such as mature forests and mountains in much of North America, Europe, and Asia.
American Goshawks are stealthy predatory hawks that feed primarily on medium-sized birds such as crows and field grouse and small mammals such as rabbits and squirrels.
They will occasionally catch smaller birds and mammals, insects, and reptiles if possible.
They are skilled hunters, using their agility and speed in flight to pursue and catch their prey through dense trees and thickets.
American Goshawks build nests in trees about 25-50 feet above the ground, using sticks, twigs, and green foliage to create a platform. Males will provide food for the females, who typically lay 2-4 eggs. The females mostly incubate the eggs and feed the chicks.
- American Goshawks are known for their fierce defense of their nests and can chase away animals much larger than themselves.
- Their fearless hunting skills have made them prized birds in falconry for hundreds of years.
- American Goshawks are sexually dimorphic, which means the females are noticeably larger than the males.
10. Ferruginous Hawk
Ferruginous Hawks are the largest buteo hawks found in North America and are residents of eastern Washington State during the summer breeding months. They are known for their size, impressive wingspan, and striking appearance.
- Length: 56-69cm (22-27 inches)
- Weight: 970-2070g (35-73oz)
- Wingspan: 133-142cm (52-56 inches)
- Ferruginous Hawk Scientific Name: Buteogallus regalis
Ferruginous Hawks are large hawks with a wingspan of up to 5 feet. They have distinctively large heads, large bills, and feathery legs that extend to their toes.
They have a distinctive rusty-red coloring on their backs and legs, a pale head, and a white underside.
Ferruginous Hawks prefer open grasslands, prairies, agricultural land, sagebrush-steppe, and desert habitats in western North America, from Canada to Mexico.
They feed primarily on small mammals, such as ground squirrels, rabbits, and prairie dogs. They also eat birds, reptiles, and insects.
They hunt by soaring high in the sky and then swooping down to catch their prey with their talons. They are also known to wait near burrows on the ground for their prey to emerge.
Ferruginous Hawks build their nests on rocky ledges, cliffs, or trees up to 50 feet off the ground, using sticks and other debris, such as cow dung, to construct a platform-like structure.
They typically lay 2-4 eggs, which both parents incubate for about a month. Males will bring food to the nest, and females will feed the chicks.
- They are known for their impressive size and striking rusty-red coloring on their backs.
- Ferruginous Hawks have used bison bones and bison dung to construct their nests.
- They are one of the few raptor species that reuse their nests year after year.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
What kind of hawks are in Washington state?
Ten kinds of hawk species live in Washington during the year. The most common include the Red-tailed Hawk, Osprey, Northern Harrier, Cooper’s Hawk, Sharp-shinned Hawk, Rough-legged Hawk, Swainson’s Hawk, Red-shouldered Hawk, American Goshawk, and Ferruginous Hawk.
Are there Red-tailed Hawks in Washington state?
Yes, Red-tailed Hawks are the most common hawks in Washington state and can be seen throughout the year.
Are there Cooper’s hawks in Washington state?
Yes, Cooper’s Hawks can be seen in Washington throughout the year. They are year-round residents of southern Washington and summer residents of northern Washington.
How big are hawks in Washington state?
Washington is home to some of the largest hawks in North America, namely the Ferruginous Hawk, Osprey, and Red-tailed Hawk.
Keep An Eye Out For Hawks In Washington State
Hawks are impressive birds of prey seen in Washington state throughout the year. From the large Ferruginous Hawk to smaller species like the Sharp-shinned Hawks, these birds are skilled hunters and a spectacular sight in the skies.
Whether you’re an avid birdwatcher or just someone who enjoys learning about nature, taking some time to learn about the ten species of hawks that live in Washington will provide you with hours of entertainment and education.
We hope this article has provided all the information you need. If you have questions about identifying more species of birds in Washington or finding out which ones live near you, let us know!
We would love to help identify new bird species for our readers.