11 Fantastic Woodpeckers in New Mexico to spot

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Woodpeckers in New Mexico

From the beautiful Ponderosa Pine Woodlands of the northern mountains to the dry Chihuahuan Deserts of southern New Mexico, bird life is abundant. Woodpeckers are a particular type of bird you can see throughout this diverse state.

There are eleven species of woodpeckers in New Mexico, including some fascinating and unique birds like the Acorn Woodpecker, Gila Woodpecker, Williamson’s Sapsucker, and Lewis’s Woodpecker. Each species has its own behavior and adaptations, making them fascinating to observe in their natural habitats.

What Are The Most Common Woodpeckers In New Mexico?

The most common woodpeckers in New Mexico include the Northern Flicker, Ladder-backed Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, Downy Woodpecker, Acorn Woodpecker, Red-naped Sapsucker, Williamson’s Sapsucker, Lewis’s Woodpecker, American three-toed Woodpecker, Gila Woodpecker, and Red-headed Woodpecker.

Of the eleven woodpeckers of New Mexico, the first four species are more commonly observed than the last seven, and all but one can be seen in the state all year round.

This post will explore the eleven woodpeckers in New Mexico and highlight their unique characteristics, such as size, calls, plumage, and feeding behavior.

We have organized our list from most likely to be seen to the least likely to be seen convenience.

New Mexico Woodpeckers

According to the latest data from ebird, there are eleven observed species of Woodpeckers in New Mexico. This data has been collected from over 20,600 dedicated bird watchers throughout New Mexico.

Here are some quick facts:

  • Northern Flickers are the most commonly observed species in New Mexico
  • Red-Headed Woodpeckers are the least widely observed species in New Mexico
  • The Northern Flicker is the largest Woodpecker in New Mexico
  • Downy Woodpeckers are the smallest species in New Mexico.
  • Northern Flickers, Ladder-backed Woodpeckers, and Downy Woodpeckers are common backyard birds of New Mexico and are most likely to visit backyard feeders.

11 Types Of Woodpeckers In New Mexico

1. Northern Flicker

The Northern Flicker is a medium-sized woodpecker found across North America and is a year-round resident of New Mexico.

There are two color groups, but all have brown plumage with black bars on their wings and tails, a black crescent mark on their cheeks, and spotted underparts.

The yellow-shafted species have yellow underwings and undertail, a grey crown, red patch behind their heads, and males have a black whisker on their face. The yellow-shafted species can be found in North America’s eastern and northern parts.

The Red-shafted species have pinkish-salmon color underwings and undertail, brown crown, lacks the red patch behind their heads, and the males have a red whisker mark on their face. The red-shafted species can be found in western North America.

  • Length: 28-31cm (about 11 to 12 inches)
  • Weight: 110-160g (3.9 to 5.6 oz)
  • Wingspan: 42-51cm (about 16.5 to 20 inches)
  • Size: Larger than a Robin but smaller than Crow

The Northern flicker has a loud “wick-a-wick-a-wick” sound. Both males and females make a loud, rapid drumming sound on trees or metal objects to mark their territories, attract mates, or warn off other Northern flickers.

Unlike most woodpeckers, Northern Flickers prefer to forage on the ground and use their long bills to dig in the ground for ants and other insects. You often see them “wicking” their bills on the ground after they catch an insect.

Northern flickers also eat fruits, berries, and nuts in the fall and winter. They will also eat suet, sunflower seeds, and peanuts from bird feeders.

The Northern flicker is a cavity nester, and the male and female take turns drilling the hole and incubating the eggs.

Females will lay between 5-8 eggs per clutch and incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch. 

After hatching, it takes roughly another three weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own.

Tip: If you want to find a Northern Flicker, look for them feeding on the ground.

2. Ladder-backed Woodpecker

The Ladder-backed Woodpecker is a small woodpecker found in the southwestern United States. They are non-migratory and can be seen in the southern half of New Mexico all year round.

They have black and white plumage with black bars on their backs, wings, and tails, and buff underparts with black spots. The black and white pattern resembles that of a ladder, hence their name “ladder-backed.” 

The male has a red crown with black and white spots near the front of their bill, whereas the female has only a black crown.

  • Length: 16-18cm (6 to 7 inches)
  • Weight: 21-48g (0.7 to 1.7 ounces)
  • Wingspan: 32-34cm (about 13 inches)
  • Size: Smaller than a Robin but larger than a Sparrow

Ladder-backed Woodpeckers have a loud “peek” sound. These small woodpeckers will drum on trees to mark their territories.

They are acrobatic foragers that rarely drill into trees to find their food but prefer to probe and glean insects from trees, cacti, and other desert foliage.

These woodpeckers primarily eat insects but will also eat fruits and seeds from desert foliage such as cacti. They will also eat suet, sunflower seeds, and peanuts from bird feeders.

The Ladder-backed Woodpecker is a cavity nester, which means they drill a hole in a desert tree to make their nest. Both the male and female take turns drilling the hole and incubate the eggs.

Females will lay between 4-7 eggs per clutch and incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch. 

3. Hairy Woodpecker

The Hairy Woodpecker is a mid-sized woodpecker found in the eastern United States. They are non-migratory and can be seen throughout New Mexico all year round.

These birds have black with white stripes running down their backs and wings and white underparts. The males have red on the back of their heads, while the females have no red.

They appear similar to Downy Woodpeckers, except they are larger and have longer bills.

  • Length: 18-26cm (7 to 10 inches)
  • Weight: 40-95g (1.4 to 4 oz)
  • Wingspan: 33-41cm (13 to 16 inches)
  • Size: About the size of a Robin

Hairy woodpeckers have a sharp “peek” sound similar but lower pitched to a Downy Woodpecker call. They also have a drumming call to mark or defend their territory, attract a mate, or respond to an intruder.

They are active foragers probing tree trunks and limbs, scaling off the bark, and drilling into the wood for their preferred food.

Hairy woodpeckers primarily eat insects but will also eat fruits, berries, and nuts. They will also eat suet, sunflower seeds, and peanuts from bird feeders.

The hairy woodpecker is a cavity nester, so they will drill a hole in a tree to make their nest. Both the male and female take turns drilling the hole and incubating the eggs.

Females will lay between 3-6 eggs per clutch and incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch. 

After hatching, it takes roughly another four weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own.

4. Downy Woodpecker

The Downy Woodpecker is the smallest member of the woodpecker family in North America. Downy Woodpeckers are non-migratory, and can be seen in New Mexico all year round.

They are primarily black with white stripes running down their backs and white spotted wings. The males have a red patch on the back of their heads, while the females have a white patch.

  • Length: 14-17cm (5.5 to 7 inches)
  • Weight: 21-28g (0.5 to 1 oz)
  • Wingspan: 25-30cm (10 to 12 inches)
  • Size: Smaller than a Robin but larger than a sparrow

Their bills are short, straight, and chisel-like, which they use to drill into trees to find insects to eat.

The downy woodpecker is a very vocal bird and will often be heard before they are seen. Their calls consist of a sharp “pik” sound followed by a softer “pik”. They also have a drumming call used to mark their territory or attract a mate.

These birds are most active during the day and can be seen crawling up tree trunks, hopping from branch to branch, or hanging upside down from branches while foraging for food.

Downy woodpeckers primarily eat insects, but they will also eat fruits, berries, and nuts. They are also frequent visitors to bird feeders that offer suet, sunflower seeds or peanuts.

The downy woodpecker is a cavity nester, which means they will drill a hole in a tree to make their nest. Both the male and female will take turns drilling the hole and incubating the eggs.

Females will lay between 3-6 white eggs per clutch. They incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch. 

After hatching, it takes roughly another three weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own.

5. Acorn Woodpecker

The Acorn Woodpecker is a small to medium-sized woodpecker found along the west coast of North America to central Mexico. They can be seen in western New Mexico all year round.

These birds are primarily black above with striking black and white patterned faces. Their belly is white with fine black lines. Males and females have red crowns, but males have more red than females.

  • Length: 19-23cm (7.5 to 9 inches)
  • Weight: 65-90g (2.3 to 3.2 oz)
  • Wingspan: 35-43cm (13.8 to 17 inches)
  • Size: About the size of a Robin

Acorn woodpeckers are gregarious birds that live in small groups or “clans” of up to 20 individuals. These clans often share a large territory and cooperate in raising their young.

Acorn woodpeckers are mainly insectivores, meaning they primarily eat insects. However, they will also eat nuts stored in the fall and winter.

One of the Acorn Woodpecker’s most unusual behaviors is their caching or storing of food. They will collect acorns and other nuts and keep them in cache sites they excavate in trees

These cache sites can contain tens of thousands of nuts and serve as an essential food source for the acorn woodpecker during lean times.

Acorn woodpeckers are cavity nesters and will excavate their nest hole in either a dead tree or a dead branch of a live tree. Both parents and other group members will take turns excavating a cavity.

Females will lay between 3-7 white eggs per clutch, and both parents will incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch. Other group members will help incubate the eggs from time to time.

After hatching, it takes roughly another four weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own.

6. Red-naped Sapsucker

The Red-naped Sapsucker is a medium-sized woodpecker found in western North America. They can be seen in central New Mexico all year round, northern New Mexico during the summer breeding season, and in southern New Mexico during the winter non-breeding season.

These birds are black with white stripes on their back and wings. They have a reddish cap, nape, and throat. Males have a full red throat, and females have some white feathers under their throats.

  • Length: 19-21cm (7.5 to 8.3 inches)
  • Weight: 32-66g (1.1 to 2.4 oz)
  • Wingspan: 41-43cm (16 to 17 inches)
  • Size: Similar in size to a Robin

The Red-naped Sapsucker is a very vocal bird, and their calls consist of a whining “waa waa” sound, and a harsher “waa” sound used to alert their mates. They also have a drumming call to mark their territory or attract a mate.

Red-naped Sapsuckers primarily eat sap and insects. They drill small holes in trees to get to the sap, which they drink with their long tongues. They will also eat the insects that are attracted to the sap.

Their diet also includes fruits and berries when available.

Red-naped Sapsuckers are cavity nesters, which means they will drill a hole in a tree to make their nest. Both the male and female will take turns drilling the hole and incubating the eggs.

Females will lay between 4-7 white eggs per clutch. They incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch.

After hatching, it takes roughly another four weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own. The parents will use this time to teach them the sapsucking technique before they leave the nest.

7. Williamson’s Sapsucker

The Williamson’s Sapsucker is a medium-sized woodpecker found in the western United States. Williamson’s Sapsuckers can be seen in central New Mexico all year round, northern New Mexico during the summer breeding season, and in southern New Mexico during the winter non-breeding season.

Male Williamson’s Sapsuckers are primarily black above with two white stripes on their face, white wing patches, red throat, and a yellow belly.

Female Williamson’s Sapsuckers have black and white barring on their back, a grayish-brown head, a black breast patch, and a yellow belly.

  • Length: 21-25cm (8.3 to 9.8 inches)
  • Weight: 44-55g (1.6 to 1.9 oz)
  • Wingspan: 43cm (17 inches)
  • Size: About the size of a Robin

The Williamson’s Sapsucker is a vocal bird that makes a harsh “chyaah” sound, and both males and females drum on trees to mark territory and attract mates. Drumming is similar to other Sapsuckers but is slower and more regular.

Williamson’s Sapsuckers are bark foragers who primarily eat insects and sap but will also eat fruits and berries when available.

They drill holes in trees and then return to the holes throughout the day to get to the sap, and the insects that are attracted to it.

Williamson’s Sapsuckers are cavity nesters, and the male typically excavates a new hole each year to make their nest.

Females will lay between 4-5 white eggs per clutch, and both male and female will incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch.

After hatching, it takes roughly another four weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own.

8. Lewis’s Woodpecker

Lewis’s Woodpeckers are medium-sized woodpeckers found in western North America. They can be seen in northern New Mexico all year round and in southern New Mexico during the colder non-breeding season.

These birds have glossy greenish-black upper parts with a pale gray breast band that wraps around the neck. Their bellies are a pinkish color, and their face is a deep red color.

  • Length: 26-28cm (10 to 11 inches)
  • Weight: 88-138g (3 to 4.9 oz)
  • Wingspan: 38-43cm (15 to 17 inches)
  • Size: Larger than a Robin but smaller than a Crow

Lewis’s woodpeckers are not as vocal as other woodpeckers but have soft calls consisting of a short but harsh “chur” sound and a clicky “yick” sound. Males will also drum on trees during courtship.

Lewis’s Woodpeckers are acrobatic birds that can be seen perched high in the trees or circling high in the air. 

They are aerial foragers, meaning they prefer to catch their food in flight by either swooping down to catch insects on the ground or by gleaning insects from trees. 

They will also eat fruits, nuts, and berries when available.

Lewis’s Woodpeckers are cavity nesters and will use the same nest cavity each year.

Females will lay between 6-7 white eggs per clutch. They incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch. 

After hatching, it takes roughly another five weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own.

9. American three-toed Woodpecker

The American three-toed Woodpecker is a medium-sized woodpecker found in northernmost North America, predominantly in the forests of Alaska and across Canada to Newfoundland.

They also inhabit areas in mainland USA along the rocky mountains and can be seen on the northernmost New Mexican border with Colorado.

These birds are primarily black and white above and white with fine black lines below. Their backs have white barring down the center, and males have a yellow patch on the foreheads.

  • Length: 21-23cm (8.3 to 9.1 inches)
  • Weight: 45-68g (1.6 to 2.4 oz)
  • Wingspan: 37-39cm (14.5 to 15.3 inches)
  • Size: Similar in size to a robin

American three-toed Woodpeckers are a shy bird, but its call is similar to that of a Downy Woodpecker, sounding like a soft “pik” sound. They also drum on trees to mark their territory or attract a mate.

These woodpeckers eat insects and larvae primarily by chipping away at the bark of dead or decaying trees. They will also eat some fruits and sap from sapsucker holes.

The American three-toed Woodpecker is a cavity nester and will excavate a new cavity hole each year. Both the male and female will take turns drilling the hole and incubating the eggs.

Females will lay between 3-6 white eggs per clutch. They incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch.

After hatching, it takes roughly another three weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own. American three-toed woodpecker parents will teach their fledglings how to find food and avoid predators for up to six weeks.

10. Gila Woodpecker

Gila Woodpeckers are medium-sized woodpeckers found in the southwestern United States and Mexico. They can be seen in southwestern New Mexico all year round.

These birds are grayish-brown with black and white barring on their backs and wings. Their belly is a light yellow color, and males have red caps.

  • Length: 22-24cm (8.7 to 9.4 inches)
  • Weight: 51-79g (1.8 to 2.8 oz)
  • Wingspan: 40-42cm (16 to 16.5 inches)
  • Size: Larger than a Robin but smaller than a Crow

Gila woodpeckers are vocal and have high-pitched “piik” calls used by both sexes.

Gila Woodpeckers are omnivores that forage on tree trunks and cacti. Unlike most woodpeckers, they don’t do much drilling for food but instead probe and glean at the surface of trees and cacti.

They eat various insects, fruit, berries, nectar, seeds, small mammals, and birds if available.

Gila Woodpeckers are cavity nesters and may use the same nest cavity each year.

Females will lay between 3-5 white eggs per clutch. Both parents incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch. 

After hatching, it takes roughly another four weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own.

11. Red-headed Woodpecker

The Red-headed Woodpecker is a medium-sized woodpecker found across North America. They can be seen small pockets in eastern New Mexico during the warmer summer breeding season.

They are all black with a white chest and belly, white patches on their wings, and a red head, neck, and throat.

Males and females look alike, but juveniles have brownish heads without a red hue.

  • Length: 19-23cm (7.5 to 9 inches)
  • Weight: 56-91g (2 to 3.2 oz)
  • Wingspan: 42cm (16.5 inches)
  • Size: Larger than a Robin but smaller than Crow

The Red-headed woodpecker has a shrill “tchur” call, similar to that of a Red-bellied Woodpecker but with a higher pitch. They also drum on trees or metal objects to warn off other birds.

Red-headed woodpeckers are omnivores and are adept at catching flying insects such as moths and grasshoppers while in flight. They will also eat fruits, berries, and nuts in the fall and winter. They will also eat suet, sunflower seeds, and peanuts from bird feeders.

The Red-headed Woodpecker is one of the few woodpeckers that store food in crevices for later feeding.

The red-headed woodpecker is a cavity nester, and the male and female take turns drilling the hole and incubating the eggs.

Females will lay between 4-7 eggs per clutch and incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch. 

After hatching, it takes roughly another three weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Are there woodpeckers in New Mexico?

Yes, there are eleven Woodpecker species in New Mexico. All but one of these species can be seen in the state all year round, and three species are common at backyard feeders.

What kind of woodpeckers are there in New Mexico?

There are eleven observed species of woodpeckers in New Mexico. The most common woodpeckers include the Northern Flicker, Ladder-backed Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, Downy Woodpecker, Acorn Woodpecker, Red-naped Sapsucker, Williamson’s Sapsucker, Lewis’s Woodpecker, American three-toed Woodpecker, Gila Woodpecker, and Red-headed Woodpecker.

What Is The Largest Woodpecker In New Mexico?

The Northern Flicker is the largest woodpecker in New Mexico.

What Is The Smallest Woodpecker In New Mexico?

The Downy Woodpecker is the Smallest in New Mexico.

Keep an eye out for Woodpeckers in New Mexico

Woodpeckers are fascinating birds you can find in New Mexico. With eleven species in the state, there is plenty to learn and appreciate about these fantastic birds.

Whether at backyard feeders, nesting cavities around your home, or simply out searching for food, Woodpeckers are a welcome sight and a reminder of the beauty that nature can bring.

In this article, we have identified the eleven commonly observed species of woodpeckers in New Mexico by size, calls, plumage, and feeding behavior.

If you have questions about identifying more species of birds in New Mexico or finding out which ones live near you, let us know! We would love to help identify new bird species for our readers.

So, keep an eye out for Woodpeckers next time you’re out and about in New Mexico!

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I am an avid birdwatcher with a passion for learning all I can about these fantastic creatures. I love finding new species of birds in my backyard, neighborhood, or when I travel. I enjoy sharing everything I learn about how these creatures live their lives; feedback and experience is much appreciated!

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