16 Beautiful Woodpeckers of California to see and hear

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Woodpeckers of California

Woodpeckers are a common sight in California. Sixteen species can be found in the state, most of which are relatively easy to identify. The woodpeckers of California can be found in various habitats, from rural areas to cities.

This article will discuss sixteen different Woodpecker species found in California. We will also provide information on identifying the Woodpeckers in your areas, such as their size, calls, plumage, and feeding behavior.

The Most Common Woodpeckers In California

The most common woodpeckers in California include the Nuttall’s Woodpecker, Northern Flicker, Acorn Woodpecker and the Downy Woodpecker. Less common Woodpeckers in California include the Black-backed Woodpecker, Gila Woodpecker and the Gilded Flicker.

We have organized this list from the most likely to be seen to the least likely to be seen.

California Woodpeckers

According to the latest data from ebird, there are sixteen observed species of Woodpeckers in California. The first seven species are common, and the last nine are more scarce and less likely to be seen. This data has been collected from over 79,000 dedicated bird watchers throughout California.

Here are some quick facts:

  • The Nuttall’s Woodpecker is the most common Woodpecker in California
  • The Gilded Flicker is the least common Woodpecker in California
  • The Pileated Woodpecker is the largest Woodpecker in California
  • The Downy Woodpecker is the smallest Woodpecker in California
  • The Nuttall’s Woodpecker is a common Backyard Bird of California and the species most likely to visit your bird feeders.

16 Types Of Woodpeckers In California

1. Nuttall’s Woodpecker

Nuttall’s woodpecker is a small woodpecker found in the western United States and Mexico, and is a year-round resident of California.

They are primarily black with white stripes on their back and wings and white below with black spots and bars on their sides.

Males and females have black faces with white stripes. Males have a red patch at the rear of their crowns, and females have a black patch.

  • Length: 16-18cm (6.3 to 7.1 inches)
  • Weight: 30-45g (1.1 to 1.6 oz)
  • Wingspan: 33-41cm (13 to 16 inches)
  • Size: Larger than a Sparrow but smaller than a Robin

The Nuttall’s woodpecker is a very vocal bird with various calls. Their most common call is a short, rolling “prrt” sound followed by a more extended, trill “prrt prrt prrrrrrr” call.

Nuttall’s woodpeckers are bark foragers who primarily eat insects such as beetles, ants, tree bugs, and caterpillars. They seldom drill into wood and prefer to scale off the bark, glean and probe for insects on trees.

Occasionally they will also eat fruits, seeds, berries, and nuts when available. 

They are also frequent visitors to bird feeders that offer suet, sunflowers seeds, or peanuts.

The Nuttall’s woodpecker is a cavity nester, and males will typically drill a new hole each year. Males do most of the nest excavation, but males and females will take turns incubating the eggs.

Females will lay between 3-4 white eggs per clutch. They incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch.

After hatching, it takes roughly another four weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own.

2. Northern Flicker

The Northern flicker is a medium-sized woodpecker found across North America. They can be seen in northern California year-round and in southern California during the colder non-breeding months.

There are two color groups, but all have brown plumage with black bars on their wings and tails, a black crescent mark on their cheeks, and spotted underparts.

The yellow-shafted species have yellow underwings and undertail, a grey crown, red patch behind their heads, and males have a black whisker on their face. The yellow-shafted species can be found in North America’s eastern and northern parts.

The Red-shafted species have pinkish-salmon color underwings and undertail, brown crown, lacks the red patch behind their heads, and the males have a red whisker mark on their face. The red-shafted species can be found in western North America.

  • Length: 28-31cm (about 11 to 12 inches)
  • Weight: 110-160g (3.9 to 5.6 oz)
  • Wingspan: 42-51cm (about 16.5 to 20 inches)
  • Size: Larger than a Robin but smaller than Crow

The Northern flicker has a loud “wick-a-wick-a-wick” sound. Both males and females make a loud, rapid drumming sound on trees or metal objects to mark their territories, attract mates, or warn off other Northern flickers.

Unlike most woodpeckers, Northern Flickers prefer to forage on the ground and use their long bills to dig in the ground for ants and other insects. You often see them “wicking” their bills on the ground after they catch an insect.

Northern flickers also eat fruits, berries, and nuts in the fall and winter. They will also eat suet, sunflower seeds, and peanuts from bird feeders.

The Northern flicker is a cavity nester, and the male and female take turns drilling the hole and incubating the eggs.

Females will lay between 5-8 eggs per clutch and incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch. 

After hatching, it takes roughly another three weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own.

Tip: If you want to find a Northern Flicker, look for them feeding on the ground.

3. Acorn Woodpecker

The Acorn Woodpecker is a small to medium-sized woodpecker found along the west coast of North America to central Mexico. They can be seen in California all year round.

These birds are primarily black above with striking black and white patterned faces. Their belly is white with fine black lines. Males and females have red crowns, but males have more red than females.

  • Length: 19-23cm (7.5 to 9 inches)
  • Weight: 65-90g (2.3 to 3.2 oz)
  • Wingspan: 35-43cm (13.8 to 17 inches)
  • Size: About the size of a Robin

Acorn woodpeckers are gregarious birds that live in small groups or “clans” of up to 20 individuals. These clans often share a large territory and cooperate in raising their young.

Acorn woodpeckers are mainly insectivores, meaning they primarily eat insects. However, they will also eat nuts stored in the fall and winter.

One of the Acorn Woodpecker’s most unusual behaviors is their caching or storing of food. They will collect acorns and other nuts and keep them in cache sites they excavate in trees

These cache sites can contain tens of thousands of nuts and serve as an essential food source for the acorn woodpecker during lean times.

Acorn woodpeckers are cavity nesters and will excavate their nest hole in either a dead tree or a dead branch of a live tree. Both parents and other group members will take turns excavating a cavity.

Females will lay between 3-7 white eggs per clutch, and both parents will incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch. Other group members will help incubate the eggs from time to time.

After hatching, it takes roughly another four weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own.

4. Downy Woodpecker

The downy woodpecker is the smallest member of the woodpecker family in North America. They are found in wooded areas throughout North America and are non-migratory, and will stay in their territories year-round. They can be seen in northern California all year round.

They are primarily black with white stripes running down their backs and white spotted wings. The males have a red patch on the back of their heads, while the females have a white patch.

  • Length: 14-17cm (5.5 to 7 inches)
  • Weight: 21-28g (0.5 to 1 oz)
  • Wingspan: 25-30cm (10 to 12 inches)
  • Size: Smaller than a Robin but larger than a sparrow

Their bills are short, straight, and chisel-like, which they use to drill into trees to find insects to eat.

The downy woodpecker is a very vocal bird and will often be heard before they are seen. Their calls consist of a sharp “pik” sound followed by a softer “pik”. They also have a drumming call used to mark their territory or attract a mate.

These birds are most active during the day and can be seen crawling up tree trunks, hopping from branch to branch, or hanging upside down from branches while foraging for food.

Downy woodpeckers primarily eat insects, but they will also eat fruits, berries, and nuts. They are also frequent visitors to bird feeders that offer suet, sunflower seeds or peanuts.

The downy woodpecker is a cavity nester, which means they will drill a hole in a tree to make their nest. Both the male and female will take turns drilling the hole and incubating the eggs.

Females will lay between 3-6 white eggs per clutch. They incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch. 

After hatching, it takes roughly another three weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own.

5. Hairy Woodpecker

The hairy woodpecker is a mid-sized woodpecker found in the eastern United States. They are non-migratory and can be seen in California all year round.

These birds have black with white stripes running down their backs and wings and white underparts. The males have red on the back of their heads, while the females have no red.

They appear similar to Downy Woodpeckers, except they are larger and have longer bills.

  • Length: 18-26cm (7 to 10 inches)
  • Weight: 40-95g (1.4 to 4 oz)
  • Wingspan: 33-41cm (13 to 16 inches)
  • Size: About the size of a Robin

The hairy woodpecker has a sharp “peek” sound similar but lower pitched to a Downy Woodpecker call. They also have a drumming call to mark or defend their territory, attract a mate, or respond to an intruder.

They are active foragers probing tree trunks and limbs, scaling off the bark, and drilling into the wood for their preferred food.

Hairy woodpeckers primarily eat insects but will also eat fruits, berries, and nuts. They will also eat suet, sunflower seeds, and peanuts from bird feeders.

The hairy woodpecker is a cavity nester, so they will drill a hole in a tree to make their nest. Both the male and female take turns drilling the hole and incubating the eggs.

Females will lay between 3-6 eggs per clutch and incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch. 

After hatching, it takes roughly another four weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own.

6. Red-breasted Sapsucker

The red-breasted sapsucker is a medium-sized woodpecker found along the west coast of North America. Their breeding grounds are in Canada’s British Columbia and along California’s Sierra Nevada mountain range.

These birds have black with white backs, and their wings have vertical white patches. Males and females have vivid red heads and breasts with a white spot between their eyes and bill.

They are primarily white with dark streaks below, and the northernmost species (Oregon upwards) has a more yellowy appearance below.

  • Length: 20-22cm (8 to 9 inches)
  • Weight: 53-63g (1.9 to 2.2 oz)
  • Wingspan: 37-40cm (14.5 to 16 inches)
  • Size: Similar in size to a Robin

The Red-breasted Sapsucker is a vocal bird whose calls consist of a nasally squeal-like “weaah” or a cat-like “meeew” sound. They also have a drumming call to mark their territory or attract a mate.

Red-breasted Sapsuckers drill into trees to feed on sap and will forage for insects on trees by probing and pecking under tree bark.

They will also catch flying insects and eat fruits and seeds when available. Not very common visitors at bird feeders but will eat suet and sunflower seeds if offered.

The Red-breasted Sapsucker is a cavity nester and prefers using dead or dying trees. Both the male and female will take turns drilling the hole and incubating the eggs.

Females will lay between 4-7 white eggs per clutch. They incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch. 

After hatching, it takes roughly another three weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own. The parents will teach their fledglings the sap-sucking technique for one to two weeks before they leave the nest.

7. White-headed Woodpecker

White-headed Woodpecker are a medium-sized woodpecker found in the western United States and Canada. They can be seen along California’s Sierra Nevada mountain range all year round.

They have a solid black body with white stripes on their wings and a white head. The males have a red patch at the rear of their crowns, while the females have a black patch.

  • Length: 20-24cm (8 to 9.5 inches)
  • Weight: 48-70g (1.7 to 2.5 oz)
  • Wingspan: 36-44cm (14 to 17 inches)
  • Size: Similar in size to a Robin and Hairy Woodpecker

The White-headed Woodpecker is a very vocal bird with a “pik” call similar to the Hairy Woodpecker. Both males and females have a deep resonating drum that they use to communicate during nesting season, mark their territory or attract a mate.

White-headed Woodpeckers are bark foragers whose diet consists primarily of pine seeds and insects such as beetles, ants, and spiders.

The White-headed Woodpecker is a cavity nester, and males and females will typically drill a new hole each year.

Females will lay between 4-5 white eggs per clutch. Both Parents incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch.

After hatching, it takes roughly another four weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own.

8. Pileated Woodpecker

The Pileated woodpecker is the largest woodpecker found in North America and can be seen in northern California all year round.

They are primarily black all over with white stripes running down their necks and wings and have a red crest on their heads. The males also have a red forecrown and red whisker near their bills, while the females have a black forecrown and black whisker.

  • Length: 40-49cm (about 16 to 20 inches)
  • Weight: 250-350g (8.8 to 12 oz)
  • Wingspan: 66-75cm (29 to 30 inches)
  • Size: Large; about the size of a crow

The Pileated woodpecker has a loud, echoing “kuk” sound similar to laughter. Both males and females drum on trees to mark their territories, attract mates, or warn off other Pileated woodpeckers.

They are powerful foragers that use their long bills to chisel away at tree bark to find their favorite food – insects

Their chiseling leaves extensive excavations in trees that provide shelter for other smaller birds and mammals.

Pileated woodpeckers also eat fruits, berries, and nuts. They will also eat suet, sunflower seeds, and peanuts from bird feeders.

Like other woodpeckers, the Pileated woodpecker is a cavity nester, and the male and female take turns drilling the hole and incubating the eggs.

Females will lay between 3-5 eggs per clutch and incubate their eggs for about three weeks before the chicks hatch. 

After hatching, it takes roughly another four weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own.

9. Lewis’s Woodpecker

Lewis’s woodpeckers are medium-sized woodpeckers found in western North America and can be seen in California’s mountain range all year round and the rest of California during the colder non-breeding months.

These birds have glossy greenish-black upper parts with a pale gray breast band that wraps around the neck. Their bellies are a pinkish color, and their face is a deep red color.

  • Length: 26-28cm (10 to 11 inches)
  • Weight: 88-138g (3 to 4.9 oz)
  • Wingspan: 38-43cm (15 to 17 inches)
  • Size: Larger than a Robin but smaller than a Crow

Lewis’s woodpeckers are not as vocal as other woodpeckers but have soft calls consisting of a short but harsh “chur” sound and a clicky “yick” sound. Males will also drum on trees during courtship.

Lewis’s woodpeckers are acrobatic birds that can be seen perched high in the trees or circling high in the air. 

They are aerial foragers, meaning they prefer to catch their food in flight by either swooping down to catch insects on the ground or by gleaning insects from trees. 

They will also eat fruits, nuts, and berries when available.

Lewis’s woodpeckers are cavity nesters and will use the same nest cavity each year.

Females will lay between 6-7 white eggs per clutch. They incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch. 

After hatching, it takes roughly another five weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own.

10. Ladder-backed Woodpecker

The ladder-backed woodpecker is a small woodpecker found in the southwestern United States. They are non-migratory and can be seen in southern California all year round.

They have black and white plumage with black bars on their backs, wings, and tails, and buff underparts with black spots. The black and white pattern resembles that of a ladder, hence their name “ladder-backed.” 

The male has a red crown with black and white spots near the front of their bill, whereas the female has only a black crown.

  • Length: 16-18cm (6 to 7 inches)
  • Weight: 21-48g (0.7 to 1.7 ounces)
  • Wingspan: 32-34cm (about 13 inches)
  • Size: Smaller than a Robin but larger than a Sparrow

The ladder-backed woodpecker has a loud “peek” sound. These small woodpeckers will drum on trees to mark their territories.

They are acrobatic foragers that rarely drill into trees to find their food but prefer to probe and glean insects from trees, cacti, and other desert foliage.

These woodpeckers primarily eat insects but will also eat fruits and seeds from desert foliage such as cacti. They will also eat suet, sunflower seeds, and peanuts from bird feeders.

The ladder-backed woodpecker is a cavity nester, which means they drill a hole in a desert tree to make their nest. Both the male and female take turns drilling the hole and incubate the eggs.

Females will lay between 4-7 eggs per clutch and incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch. 

11. Williamson’s Sapsucker

The Williamson’s sapsucker is a medium-sized woodpecker found in the western United States. They are scarce in California but may be seen in pockets of California (Mountain range and southern California).

Male Williamson’s Sapsuckers are primarily black above with two white stripes on their face, white wing patches, red throat, and a yellow belly.

Female Williamson’s Sapsuckers have black and white barring on their back, a grayish-brown head, a black breast patch, and a yellow belly.

  • Length: 21-25cm (8.3 to 9.8 inches)
  • Weight: 44-55g (1.6 to 1.9 oz)
  • Wingspan: 43cm (17 inches)
  • Size: About the size of a Robin

The Williamson’s sapsucker is a vocal bird that makes a harsh “chyaah” sound, and both males and females drum on trees to mark territory and attract mates. Drumming is similar to other Sapsuckers but is slower and more regular.

Williamson’s sapsuckers are bark foragers who primarily eat insects and sap but will also eat fruits and berries when available.

They drill holes in trees and then return to the holes throughout the day to get to the sap, and the insects that are attracted to it.

Williamson’s sapsuckers are cavity nesters, and the male typically excavates a new hole each year to make their nest.

Females will lay between 4-5 white eggs per clutch, and both male and female will incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch.

After hatching, it takes roughly another four weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own.

12. Red-naped Sapsucker

The red-naped sapsucker is a medium-sized woodpecker found in western North America. They are scarcely seen in California but may be seen in southern California during the colder non-breeding months.

These birds are black with white stripes on their back and wings. They have a reddish cap, nape, and throat. Males have a full red throat, and females have some white feathers under their throats.

  • Length: 19-21cm (7.5 to 8.3 inches)
  • Weight: 32-66g (1.1 to 2.4 oz)
  • Wingspan: 41-43cm (16 to 17 inches)
  • Size: Similar in size to a Robin

The red-naped sapsucker is a very vocal bird, and their calls consist of a whining “waa waa” sound, and a harsher “waa” sound used to alert their mates. They also have a drumming call to mark their territory or attract a mate.

Red-naped sapsuckers primarily eat sap and insects. They drill small holes in trees to get to the sap, which they drink with their long tongues. They will also eat the insects that are attracted to the sap.

Their diet also includes fruits and berries when available.

Red-naped sapsuckers are cavity nesters, which means they will drill a hole in a tree to make their nest. Both the male and female will take turns drilling the hole and incubating the eggs.

Females will lay between 4-7 white eggs per clutch. They incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch.

After hatching, it takes roughly another four weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own. The parents will use this time to teach them the sapsucking technique before they leave the nest.

13. Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

The yellow-bellied sapsucker is a medium-sized woodpecker found across North America. While scarce in California, they may be seen in southeastern California during the colder non-breeding months.

They are primarily black and white with a striped face, white wing patches, and yellowish underparts. Males have a red forecrown and red throat, and females have a red forecrown and white throat.

  • Length: 18-22cm (7 to 8.5 inches)
  • Weight: 43-55g (1.5 to 1.9 oz)
  • Wingspan: 34-40cm (13 to 16 inches)
  • Size: About the size of a Robin

The Yellow-bellied Sapsucker has a squeal-like call that sounds like “weeah” and a cat like “meeow” call. They also make a drumming sound on trees or metal objects to warn other birds away from their territories, but it is slower and less regular than other woodpeckers.

Yellow-bellied sapsuckers are unique among woodpeckers in that they drink the sap of trees. They make small holes in the bark of trees and return to these holes to feed on the sap, and the insects attracted to it.

They also eat flying insects, fruits, and seeds. In the winter, they will also eat suet, sunflower seeds, and peanuts from bird feeders.

The Yellow-bellied Sapsucker is a cavity nester. The male and female take turns drilling the hole and incubating the eggs.

Females will lay between 3-7 eggs per clutch and incubate them for about two weeks before the chicks hatch. 

After hatching, it takes roughly another three weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own. Before the fledglings leave the nest, their parents teach them the sapsucking technique.

14. Black-backed Woodpecker

Black-backed woodpeckers are a medium-sized woodpecker that is found across North America. They are non-migratory, and their range stretches from Alaska to Newfoundland. They are scarcely observed in California but are known to be residents of northern California all year round.

Adults have a distinctive black back and head with a single white stripe reminiscent of a mustache. Their underparts are primarily white, with some black barring on their flanks. The males have a small patch of yellow on their crowns.

  • Length: 22-23cm (about 9 inches)
  • Weight: 61-88g (2.1 to 3.1 oz)
  • Wingspan: 40-42cm (15.8 to 16.5 inches)
  • Size: Similar in size to a Robin

The black-backed woodpecker is a vocal bird whose calls consist of a sharp “pik” or “kyik” sound. Males also drum on trees as part of their territorial displays.

Black-backed woodpeckers are mostly insectivores that flake off the bark of dead trees to feed on larvae from wood-boring beetles. They also eat other insects and spiders and some fruits and nuts when available.

The black-backed woodpecker is a cavity nester and will excavate its nest hole or use an existing one made by another species of woodpecker. Both males and females take turns excavating their nesting cavity, with the male doing most of the work.

Both the male and female will take turns incubating the eggs and raising the chicks. Females will lay between 3-4 white eggs per clutch, and both parents will incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch.

After hatching, it takes roughly another three weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own.

15. Gila Woodpecker

Gila Woodpeckers are medium-sized woodpeckers found in the southwestern United States and Mexico. They are scarce in California and may be seen along the border with Arizona all year round.

These birds are grayish-brown with black and white barring on their backs and wings. Their belly is a light yellow color, and males have red caps.

  • Length: 22-24cm (8.7 to 9.4 inches)
  • Weight: 51-79g (1.8 to 2.8 oz)
  • Wingspan: 40-42cm (16 to 16.5 inches)
  • Size: Larger than a Robin but smaller than a Crow

Gila woodpeckers are vocal and have high-pitched “piik” calls used by both sexes.

Gila woodpeckers are omnivores that forage on tree trunks and cacti. Unlike most woodpeckers, they don’t do much drilling for food but instead probe and glean at the surface of trees and cacti.

They eat various insects, fruit, berries, nectar, seeds, small mammals, and birds if available.

Gila woodpeckers are cavity nesters and may use the same nest cavity each year.

Females will lay between 3-5 white eggs per clutch. Both parents incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch. 

After hatching, it takes roughly another four weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own.

16. Gilded Flicker

The Gilded Flicker is a medium-sized woodpecker found in the southwestern United States and Mexico. They are scarce in California and may be seen along the border with Arizona all year round.

These birds are brownish-gray with a black crescent on their chests and black spots on their breast and belly.

They have fine black barring on their back and a rusty-cinnamon-colored crown and nape. Their wings flash yellow during flight, and the males have a red mustache (malar).

  • Length: 28cm (11 inches)
  • Weight: 92-129g (3.3 to 4.5 oz)
  • Wingspan: 50-52cm (19 to 20.5 inches)
  • Size: Larger than a Robin but smaller than the Northern Flicker

The Gilded Flicker is a vocal bird whose calls resemble the Northern Flicker, albeit with a more high-pitched “klee-ye” and “wick wick” sounds. They also have a drumming call to mark their territory or attract a mate.

Gilded flickers are primarily ground foragers that can be seen hopping on the ground, looking for ants and other insects. They mainly eat insects but will also eat fruits, berries, nuts, and seeds.

The gilded flicker is a cavity nester and typically uses dead trees to make its nest. Both the male and female will take turns drilling the hole and incubating the eggs.

Females will lay between 4-6 white eggs per clutch. They incubate their eggs for about two weeks before the chicks hatch. After hatching, it takes roughly another four weeks for the chicks to fledge or grow their adult feathers and be able to fly on their own.


Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

How many types of woodpeckers are in California?

There are sixteen types of woodpeckers in California. The most common include the Nuttall’s Woodpecker, Northern Flicker, and the Acorn Woodpecker.

What Is The Largest Woodpecker In California?

The Pileated Woodpecker is the largest woodpecker in California.

What Is The Smallest Woodpecker In California?

The Downy Woodpecker is the smallest woodpecker in California.

Keep and eye out for the woodpeckers of california

Woodpeckers are iconic birds in North America and play an essential role in the ecosystem. If you are lucky, you may spot one of these beautiful birds in your backyard or on a nature hike.

Woodpeckers can be found in a variety of habitats throughout California. The best way to find them is to listen for their loud calls and distinctive markings or look for their tell-tale holes in trees.

If you have questions about identifying more species or finding out which ones live near you, let us know! We would love to help identify new bird species for our readers.

We hope you enjoyed learning about the different woodpeckers that call California home!

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I am an avid birdwatcher with a passion for learning all I can about these fantastic creatures. I love finding new species of birds in my backyard, neighborhood, or when I travel. I enjoy sharing everything I learn about how these creatures live their lives; feedback and experience is much appreciated!

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